First National park of India was established in 1936 is Hailey National Park which is now world widely known as Jim Corbett National Park. In 1970, India was having only 5 National Parks and after introduction of Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger for protecting wildlife of flora and fauna, now by 2015 there are around 105 National Parks supporting wildlife of India . Theses National Parks are located in different regions of India supporting different wildlife, vegetation etc.
Top 10 National Parks in India :
Corbett National Park: It is the oldest national park which was established in 8 August1936 and named as Hailey National Park. After independence in 1947 it was renamed as Ramganga National Park and later in 1957 it was again renamed as Corbett National Park on the name of Jim Corbett who was author and wildlife conservationist. This Park is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand and was the first ever park to come under Project Tiger. The park also cover Patli Dun valley which was formed by the Ramganga river. Presently, the total area of reserve is 1318.54 sq. km. Temperature varies from 5°C - 30°C in winters to around not more than 40°C in summer. As per botanical survey of India, park has around 600 species of plants - trees, shrubs, ferns, grass, bamboos etc. It is not only rich in fauna but also rich in flora.
Kaziranga National Park: Located in Golaghat and Nagaon districts of Assam. Total area of park is 430sq km And also holds a title for World Heritage Site Park, which hold 2/3 of one horn rhinoceros’s population. According to census 2015 rhino population in Kaziranga are around 2,401. It also consists of different species of flora such as elephant grasses, marshland, tropical moist forest etc. As it lies in sub-Himalayan region and due to the presence of high varieties of species of both flora and fauna it is called as biodiversity hotspot. the tiger population density in this park is highest among any park in India. Park has an average rainfall of 1320mm and the temperature varies from 8 ° C in winter to 38° C in summer
Periyar National Park: Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Idukki and Pathanamthitta district of Kerala. It is also known as elephant reserve and tiger reserve. Total area of the park is 305 km2 And was established in 1982 and presently it is governed by Kerala Forest Department. The park consists of tropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests along with grasslands. There are 171 species of grass and 140 species of orchids available in this climate of Periyar and also have fauna species i.e. 45 species of reptiles, 265 species of birds and 35 species of mammals recorded in park.
Sariska Tiger Reserve: Located in Alwar district of Rajasthan. It is supported by forests, landscapes, dry deciduous forests etc. It is the India’s first tiger reserve to successfully relocated tiger. Park occupies and total area of 866 km2. Attraction of this park is its Bengal tigers and apart from this it includes many other species of birds and animals. Temperature varies from 38.4°C at highest in summers to 15°C at lowest in winters . Different species of flora is seen as it’s a dry deciduous forest such as dhok, tendu, khair etc. and fauna species such as leopard, wild dog, jungle cat, tigers, nilgai, langur and species of birds etc. In 1955 it was established as sanctuary then in 1978 established as tiger reserve and then in 1982 established as national park .
Gir Forest National Park: This is a forest as well as wildlife sanctuary which is located in Gujarat. Park was established in 1965 and it’s the only home of the Asiatic lions. There are over 250 species of birds and also rarest species of bird such as lesser florican and sarus are also seen in the grassland of Gir forest. The Total area of Park is around 1,412 km2 As per 14th Asiatic lion census 2015 conducted it was seen that there is 27% increase in population of lion as compared to 2010 census. This Park consist of deciduous forest, grassland, scrub land, evergreen vegetation etc which is a part of Asiatic lion survival. Gir also consist of a large number of Crocodile population, reptiles as per sanctuary record. Kamleshwar Dam is the biggest reservoir which is supporting life in Gir forest. There are around 400 species of flora and 2,375 distinct species of fauna.
Kanha National Park: Located in Madhya Pradesh which is known as heart of India. This park is famous due to its Tiger reserve and it’s the one of the finest wildlife area. In 1955 this sanctuary was established as national park. It is widely spread around an area of 940 km2 . This park is filled with huge varieties of fauna and flora. This park is a natural habitat for Barasingha which is also known as Jewel of Kanha. Over 70 species of flora, 300 species of birds, mammal and reptiles etc are found in Kanha. Attractions of the park are tiger, gaur, sambhar, chital, barasingha, black deer etc.The birds species in the park include teals, pintails, pond herons, peacock, jungle fowl, spotted parakeets etc.
Bandhavgarh National Park: Located in Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. It occupies around 446 km2 of area and governed by Madhya Pradesh Forest Department. This national park is having one of the highest populations of tiger in India and also has large breeding population of other species too. There are around 37 species of mammals. Sarus cranes come to the park in rainy season for breeding. And the biggest attractions of the park are tigers . Temperature varies from 42°C at highest in summers to 4°C at lowest in winters.
Ranthambhore National Park: Largest national parks in northern India, located in Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan. Covering around 392 km² of area. Park lies at the edge of plateau, covered by Banas River and Chambal River. In 1980 the tiger reserve was established as Ranthambore national park. Main attractions of parks are tigers in their natural habitat. Other species of wildlife are seen as leopard, nilgai, wild boar, sambar, hyena, etc. and also other species of plants, birds and reptiles. The park includes around 539 species of flowering plants . Temperature varies from 10°C - 25°C in Winters and from 25°C - 45°C in summers .
Sunderban National Park: Located in West Bengal occupying an total area of 1.330.12 Km2. The park is made up of 54 small island formed by Ganga tributaries. This delta is densely covered with mangrove forests and stand as one of the largest reserves for Bengal tigers. It also home for various species of birds, reptile, invertebrate etc. In 1973 Sunderban National Park established as Tiger Reserve then in 1977 established as wildlife sanctuary and in 1984 it was finally declared as National Park. This park lies between Ganges Delta and adjacent to part of Reserve Forest in Bangladesh. Administration of park is handled by Directorate of Forest. Forest also has various endangered species such as Bengal tiger, crocodile, river terrapin, turtle, mangrove horseshoe crab, and river dolphin .
Keoladeo National Park: It also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary Located in Rajasthan. Around 230 species of birds had made this home as National Park. It is major attraction for tourist. This site is under the protection act from 1971 and also declared as World heritage site. The park is occupying an area of 29sq km . This is a manmade national park. Occupies a total area of 29 km2 and also consist of variety of dry grasslands, woodlands and wetlands . Temperature varies from 48°C at highest in summer to around 5°C at lowest in winters . Grasslands and wet lands make it a perfect place for native and winter migratory birds .